Smoking is the most significant risk factor for bladder cancer, increasing the risk for bladder cancer approximately three-fold compared to non-smokers. Older age is also associated with a greater risk for bladder cancer, as the average age at diagnosis is 73 years. In addition, there is an association with race, as whites are approximately twice as likely to develop bladder cancer compared to other races.
Certain occupations, such as the dye, rubber, leather, painting, and textile industries, are also associated with a greater risk of bladder cancer, due to exposure to chemicals at the workplace. Chemotherapy and radiation for other cancers are associated with an increased risk for bladder cancer.