The most common type of fistula in these systems is a vesicovaginal fistula, in which the woman's vagina is connected to the urinary bladder. This causes leakage of urine from the vagina and results in frequent vaginal and bladder infections. Fistulas may also develop between the vagina and the large intestine (an enterovaginal fistula) or rectum (rectovaginal fistula) so that feces leak from the vagina.
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Fortunately, both of these types of fistulas are uncommon in the developed world. However, they are more common in developing countries, resulting from long, difficult labor and childbirth, especially in young girls. As a result, they are sometimes referred to as obstetric fistulas. If left unrepaired, urogenital fistulas result in constant vaginal leakage of urine or feces, causing extreme hardship and psychological trauma.