In 2015, it is estimated that 8400 U.S. men were diagnosed with testis cancer and 380 men died from testis cancer. Testis cancer is most commonly diagnosed in the second and third decade of life, with the average age of diagnosis being 33 years. For unknown reasons, testis cancer is becoming more prevalent in the U.S. and elsewhere.
Just as self-examination for breast cancer is taught to young women, testicular self-examination should be encouraged among young men. Advanced medical techniques in diagnosis and treatment exist that effectively address this form of cancer, with low risk of complications. As with many forms of cancer, early detection and treatment can significantly enhance prognosis.
More than ninety-percent of testis cancers develop from germ cells, which are responsible for making sperm. There are two main types of germ cell tumors, and the diagnosis is made under the microscope.
- Embryonal carcinoma
- Yolk sac carcinoma
Stromal tumors, which are often benign, account for 5% of adult testis cancers and are comprised of: (1) Leydig cell tumors and (2) Sertoli cell tumors.